If Theres No Food Or Seasonal Allergy Are There External Parasites Present
Lets assume that you have completed the skin examination and youve found that all checks out no apparent abnormalities anywhere but your dog is still itchy. Now its time to check for external parasites .
To test for external parasites, simply get a flea comb and carefully run it through portions of your dogs fur. Its unlikely that you will comb out a live flea, as they are rather elusive, but if fleas are present you will almost certainly comb out an egg or two.
Flea eggs can also be difficult to see, so clean the comb out over a white piece of paper. The eggs are dark in color, so they will be easier to see on a white background.
If you do not come across any fleas or flea eggs, then there is a good chance that you will come across a louse. Louse, singular for lice, are about the size of a small sesame seed.
If you have determined that fleas or lice are present on your dog, the next step here is to wash all of your dogs bedding, as well as your sheets and anything other fabric that your dog may lie down on.
After you do this, its time to treat your dogs flea or lice problem directly. You will need to purchase a good quality flea shampoo to treat your dog effectively.
Regardless of whether your dog has fleas or lice, a flea shampoo will be effective to treat the issue. Most flea shampoos contain either pyrethrins or organophosphates, which are both effective at getting rid of both lice and fleas.
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Statistical Analyses Of Traits And Covariates
We examined the relationships between measured phenotypes and other possible covariates. We used Fisher’s exact test for count data to determine whether CAD-gender relationships were significant. Similarly we used the Welch two-sample t-test for determining the CAD-IgA levels relationship. We used the same approaches to check if there were any significant differences in CAD status or IgA levels between subpopulations.
As IgA levels can vary with age, we fitted a linear model to determine the age effect on the IgA levels, and used Pearson’s correlation coefficient to measure the strength of the relationship. We considered CAD cases and controls separately and together. The age at the time of sampling was defined at 0.1-year resolution for most individuals and estimated at a year resolution for 10 dogs .
Combination Allergies And Their Secondary Effects
All dogs affected by allergies, irrespective of breed and including the German Shepherd, can be affected by more than one allergen.
In fact, having allergies to more than one allergen is more common than being allergic to just one thing. Being allergic to a range of things makes allergy in pets a complicated condition.
This may mean an allergy to multiple grasses, tree pollen, foods, insects, etc. in the same dog. Some pets may be affected by a large range of food allergens without having additional allergy triggers.
In dogs affected by multiple allergies, identification of the most important allergen is always the key. Ideally, most or all of the offending allergens need to be identified to help ensure good patient comfort. This in turn, will help limit secondary skin infections in a breed like German Shepherds, that is quite prone to skin infections as we will find in the next blog discussing skin infection related conditions of German Shepherds.
Early and definitive identification of allergy signs is always helpful in stopping progression of allergies and their impact in any dog, but is especially true for German Shepherds. If your German Shepherd shows allergic symptoms of itchiness, redness of skin, hair loss, or changes in skin quality, it may be time to consult with a vet dermatology clinic so that your pet dermatologist can help identify the true problem.
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Pannus Or German Shepherd Dog Keratitis
Pannus is unfortunately common in German Shepherd health and affects both eyes and can cause total blindness.
It is caused by inflammation of the cornea and most often occurs at about the age of two. The first and most noticeable symptom is the pink or red membrane at the corner of one or both eyes.
This condition isnt curable, but it can be treated with medicated eye drops. Its important to catch this as early as possible to avoid any scarring.
Skin Problems In German Shepherds And What You Can Use To Help Relieve Them
Inflamed SkinBacterial InfectionsFungal/YeastRingwormDermatitisSeborrheaCanine AcneFolliculitisDemodectic MangeItchy, Dry Skin
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Diagnosing Your Dogs Belly Rash
The best way to determine the cause of your dogs belly rash is to make an appointment with your veterinarian, who will perform some diagnostic tests based on your dogs age, breed, overall health, and symptoms.
Veterinarians use skin samples, blood tests to detect underlying conditions, fungal cultures, antibiotic sensitivity tests, and in some cases, allergy testing to accurately diagnose skin conditions in dogs. Your veterinarian may refer you to a dermatologist for further testing and treatment.
Primary Vs Secondary Canine Skin Problems
Your vet will try and determine if a dog skin problem is primary or secondary. Primary skin lesions are caused by a specific disease. Secondary dog skin issues occur when a disease progresses or from a self-injury such as itching or scratching as is common with dog skin allergy.
Identifying canine skin diseases and conditions can be difficult since there are many causes. The key to understanding which condition your dog is suffering from is to do your best to match the characteristics of each cause with the symptoms exhibited by your dog.
Miscellaneous Causes Of Hyperpigmentation In Dogs
This dog suffers from atopic dermatitis, which means shes very itchy and might scratch her skin enough to cause hyperpigmentation:
To pick up where we started and end here, the most common cause of hyperpigmentation in dogs is chronic licking or scratching .
Although you think you might be noticing your dogs black tummy for the first time maybe youre thinking Suddenly my dogs skin is turning black and smells or Why is my dogs skin turning black under their leg creases now? this is usually not the case. The changes are gradual and not a cause for emergency alarm.
If your dog is not exhibiting any scratching, licking or biting at themselves has no obvious lesions on the skin other than the change in color and seems normal in every other way, bring up the hyperpigmentation at your next vet visit.
German Shepherd Skin Allergy Symptoms
Signs of allergies include biting on parts of the German Shepherds body, chewing or scratching. When you notice these, your dog may have an allergy. Symptoms also include flaky skin, hot spots, hair loss, dandruff, sores and dry skin.
You need to watch out for skin allergies affecting either the ears or the eyes. Smelly ears or teary eyes could lead to painful infections when not treated. It would be best to consult a veterinarian right away for the proper prescription.
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How Is Yeast Dermatitis Treated
Treatment for yeast dermatitis may be topical, oral, or a combination of both, and is based on the severity of your dog’s condition.
Topical treatment. Treatment with medicated shampoos is a vital part of treating yeast dermatitis. Many dogs with greasy or oily skin will require an initial degreasing cleansing with a shampoo containing selenium sulfide or benzoyl peroxide. After the initial bathing is complete, bathing with an anti-fungal shampoo containing chlorhexidine, miconazole, or ketoconazole is performed. It is important the anti-fungal shampoo remain in contact with the skin for at least ten minutes. To be effective, this topical treatment is required every 3-5 days for two to twelve weeks. If the infection is in the ears or in only one or two spots on the skin, a topical ointment may be prescribed for daily use.
Oral treatment. In more severe, chronic, or persistent cases of yeast dermatitis, the use of oral or systemic anti-fungal medications is often required. Many dogs with yeast dermatitis will also have a bacterial skin infection and will require antibiotics to treat the bacterial infection for typically four to twelve weeks. Oral anti-fungal medications include ketoconazole, itraconazole, and fluconazole.
Hereditary Multifocal Renal Cystadenocarcinoma And Nodular Dermatofibrosis:
Hereditary multifocal renal cystadenocarcinoma and nodular dermatofibrosis, or RCND, is a progressive and late onset kidney cancer that occurs naturally in dogs. It was first discovered in German Shepherd dogs in 1985. Dogs that are affected develop several firm nodules which is known as dermatofibrosis of the skin. In addition, they develop bilateral and multifocal tumors in their kidney. It equally affects male and female German Shepherds and only one copy of the gene needs to be present.
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Differentially Expressed Immune Genes Indicated In Untreated Mild Cad Skin
The majority of DEGs with higher expression in the untreated mild CAD case compared to controls have known functions in an activated immune response and inflammation. S100A8, S100A9, and S100A12 encode proteins that are well-known markers of acute inflammation and previously implicated in several other inflammatory and autoimmune diseases including systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, and atherosclerosis . IL-36 cytokines, including IL-36B and IL-36G, actively propagate skin inflammation by activating keratinocytes, antigen-presenting cells, and indirectly T-cells . IGJ encodes the immunoglobulin-joining chain of multimeric IgA and IgM, DLA-79 and DLA-64 are part of MHC class I, and PSMB8 and PSMB9 are located in the MHC class II region and encode members of the immunoproteasome that are critical for processing of MHC class I peptides . ARSF belong to the family of sulfatases and has been suggested as a new marker for psoriasis in a mRNA-seq analysis of skin in humans . LOC102152183 is an uncharacterized ncRNA and has no previously known functions but could potentially be a novel marker for skin inflammation. Due to the inclusion of only one untreated CAD case in this comparison, no certain conclusions can be drawn, but these suggestive DEGs encoding proteins with striking immunological functions and one novel ncRNA warrant further studies to confirm these findings.
Susceptibility To Skin Allergies
Unfortunately, the German Shepherd is a high-risk breed for skin allergies like canine atopic dermatitis . Environmental causes, mainly parasitic, and food hypersensitivity are predispositions that any German Shepherd pet parent should expect to encounter. German Shepherds are susceptible to immunological disorders, and often, this breed of dog will suffer from dry, flaky skin, sores from flea allergy dermatitis, secondary bacterial skin infections, scabies, and other forms of contact dermatitis.
Due to the high likelihood of your German Shepherd developing allergies, if you see him excessively or frequently shaking his head, or scratching, chewing, or biting on parts of his body, he probably has an allergy.
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Diagnosis Of Canine Integumentary Disorders
Your vet will examine your dog’s skin carefully as part of a complete examination. The exam will start with a thorough history since many dog skin disorders are more common in certain breeds and at specific ages. There is also a higher incidence of specific types of dog skin problems in some breeds.
In order to properly diagnose diseases and conditions canine skin, various tests may be needed. Tests might include:
- Examining skin under a special light : this is done to check for certain fungal infections such as ringworm.
- Dog skin biopsy: in this test, a needle is used to remove cells from a lump to be examined by a pathologist. This can determine if a lump is cancerous or if it is just a cyst or wart.
- Blood tests: might be done to check for infections and certain nutrient deficiencies.
If you keep your dog clean and it continues to smell or have a greasy coat then your pet is probably suffering from parasites, seborrhea or a skin infection.
Common Causes Of Canine Skin Disease
Flea allergy dermatitis, environmental and food allergies are the leading causes of to dog skin lesions and rashes. Even if you don’t find any fleas on your dog, they are skilled at hiding, with even a few able to cause a problem in allergic dogs. Symptoms are usually in the form of raised red bumps known as hives. They are itchy and will cause your dog to scratch. Excessive scratching may break the skin, leading to infection.
If no infection occurs, hives will usually go away on their own once exposure to the allergen is removed. If infection develops, however, medical treatment will be needed. See your vet if your dog has sores that dont go away in a few days, or sores that ooze anything yellowish in color. He may need antibiotics.
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How To Deal With German Shepherd Dry Itchy Skin
Did you know that German Shepherd Dogs visit their vets often because of skin problems? Excessive scratching, itching may lead to skin infections that may eventually deteriorate your GSDs health. Having knowledge on the basics of German Shepherd skin problems will help you treat and prevent them from happening.
Definition And Visualization Of Differentially Expressed Genes
The base 2 log of the fold change for cases FPKM/controls FPKM and a test statistic were calculated using cuffdiff to compute significance of the observed change in FPKM . We used the default setting for significant FDR in cuffdiff. Analyses for defining DEGs were performed by comparing all five CAD cases with three healthy controls and also by using a leave-one-out approach defining DEGs in common between eight comparisons of cases and controls, where one dog was subsequently omitted to avoid effects from individual variation in gene expression. We also performed a comparison between the untreated mild CAD case with the healthy controls. As quality control, we excluded DEGs with < 1.5 log2 fold change and DEGs with < 10 FPKM in more than 50% of the samples. In the comparison between the untreated CAD case compared to controls, we applied an additional quality control by subsequently excluding DEGs with less than double/half FPKM difference between the untreated case and any of the other individual FPKM . R package CummeRbund was used to evaluate and visualize the expression results returned by cuffdiff. R package gplots and Adobe Illustrator 2019 was used for creating final figures.
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German Shepherd Environmental Allergies
Environmental allergies are caused by allergens in the environment around us. Just as we humans can suffer from seasonal allergies from pollen and grasses along with indoor allergies from dust, so can our best pal, in fact, this is the most common of allergies in German shepherds.
People sometimes become extremely miserable from this malady and our pups can too. Symptoms are itching, dry flaky skin, hair loss, hot spots, sneezing, coughing, and puffy watery eyes.
The rashes can manifest on their stomach, armpits, ears, and around the mouth and eyes. Hot spots can appear on the wrists , with skin appearing red and raw from your pup constantly chewing, licking and biting, to irritate further. Ear infections can also develop if allergies are left untreated.
Treatment for allergies can range from allergy medications, oral steroids, topical steroids, and baths with shampoos that are specifically made for calming and soothing their skin issues, often containing natural ingredients like tea tree oil or Aloe Vera.
Other things you can do to help your pup during allergy season is to walk them later in the day, perhaps when pollen counts arent as high.
Vacuum your house more often to eliminate dust mites and also any pollen that is tracked indoors.
Allergies that are airborne will be an issue that will affect your shepherd throughout their life and will worsen with age.
Treatments For Alopecia X In Dogs
If you notice that your dogs hair is falling out and you suspect that they might be suffering from alopecia X, your veterinarian will want to carry out a full physical examination and also order blood tests.
Due to the difficulty in identifying the root cause, diagnosis of the disease often begins with attempting to rule out other conditions first.
If your vet confirms their diagnosis, the might suggest treatments that attempt to stimulate hair growth. Sometimes they might order a combination of using a special topical shampoo containing glycolic acid alongside retinoid therapy.
In other cases, hormonal therapy can be an option although, this can be a long process that requires lots of vet visits and close monitoring of a dogs hormonal balance.
Additionally, vets often advise that dogs suffering from this condition wear sunscreen on the affected areas of their skin. Make sure to use a sunscreen recommended by your vet or one that is specially formulated for dogs, and always avoid using human products on pets unless your vet suggests them.
Has your dog ever had alopecia X? How did your vet help your dog deal with the hair loss? Tell us all about it in the comments below.
Hyperpigmentation In Dogs: Primary Or Secondary
Generally speaking, hyperpigmentation is a secondary condition, thus it is a secondary effect. It happens most often when there is trauma to the skin for any reason. Skin inflammation such a redness of skin or scratching the skin are common causes of skin trauma.
When such skin trauma occurs, the skin repair cycle is activated. Part of skin repair involves increased melanin pigment as a protective effect for superficial skin layers. When this protective melanin pigment accumulates in the skin layers, skin is visibly darker to see. Causes such as skin allergy in dogs, scratching, skin infection due to bacteria, skin inflammation due to skin parasites, and self-trauma by dogs with activities such as scratching, rubbing, licking, and biting at their own skin are commonly seen in dogs with skin problems. These all can lead to hyperpigmentation.
Sometimes darker skin, i.e. hyperpigmentation of the skin, may occur after a skin problem has already occurred and the skin is healing from previous trauma to itself.
Other causes of hyper pigmented skin in dogs include breed-specific variations, hormonal disorders such as hypothyroidism or Cushings disease, effects of medications, physiological changes, etc. When other skin lesions such as hair loss or skin redness are evident, these signs are typically more helpful in finding the cause of the skin changes and correcting the signs including hyperpigmentation.